Nature

Introduction to Systems Ecology

Introduction to Systems Ecology

Author: Sven Erik Jorgensen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439855201

Category: Nature

Page: 360

View: 197

Possibly the first textbook to present a practically applicable ecosystems theory, Introduction to Systems Ecology helps readers understand how ecosystems work and how they react to disturbances. It demonstrates—with many examples and illustrations—how to apply the theory to explain observations and to make quantitative calculations and predictions. In this book, Sven Erik Jørgensen takes a first step toward integrating thermodynamics, biochemistry, hierarchical organization, and network theory into a holistic theory of systems ecology. The first part of the book covers the laws of thermodynamics and the basic biochemistry of living organisms, as well as the constraints they impose on ecosystems. To grow and develop, however, ecosystems have to evade these thermodynamic and biochemical constraints, so the second part of the book discusses the seven basic properties that enable ecosystems to grow, develop, and survive: They are open systems, far from thermodynamic equilibrium. They are organized hierarchically. They have a high diversity. They have high buffer capacities toward changes. Their components are organized in cooperative networks, which allows for sophisticated feedback, regulation mechanisms, and higher efficiencies. They contain an enormous amount of information embodied in genomes. They have emerging system properties. This timely textbook also looks at how systems ecology is applied in integrated environmental management, particularly in ecological modeling and engineering and in the assessment of ecosystem health using ecological indicators. Acknowledging that there is still much room for improvement, it will inspire ecologists to develop a stronger and more widely applicable ecosystem theory.
Science

Systems Ecology

Systems Ecology

Author: Howard T. Odum

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated

ISBN: MINN:31951000029058P

Category: Science

Page: 682

View: 99

An integrated theoretical and applied introduction to systems ecology that uses energy diagrammatic language to explain basic concepts of systems, modelling, and simulation. Teaches energetics while at the same time dealing with the issues of organization, entropy, information, complexity, diversity, frequency, and power and the ways these determine the nature of real systems. Includes analog and digital computer modelling, enabling readers without prior programming experience to create computer models of ecological processes.
Science

Theoretical Systems Ecology

Theoretical Systems Ecology

Author: Efraim Halfon

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780323146920

Category: Science

Page: 532

View: 653

Theoretical Systems Ecology: Advances and Case Studies aims to relate systems ecology theory to theoretical systems ecologists and other theoreticians in systems science. The main language of systems theory is mathematics. This book somewhat simplifies concepts, advances, and developments of the field to non-mathematicians who lack background in some aspects of systems ecology. It presents examples after every chapter that shows the application of theory to the development and analysis of models. This book generally focuses on three problems. The first problem is the selection of components found in the system model. The definition of the relationships and interactions between the system variables is another concern of this book. It also looks into the model analysis. These problems are thoroughly discussed in each section of the book. The theory of modeling, formalisms, classes, and properties of models are covered in the first two sections of this book. A whole section in this book is dedicated to Systems Identification and deals mostly with the problem of extracting information from data. Other sections cover model analysis with focus on trends in some aspects, such as stability and control theory.
Bioenergetics

Introduction to Systems Ecology

Introduction to Systems Ecology

Author: Sven Jorgensen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0367866099

Category: Bioenergetics

Page: 358

View: 662

Possibly the first textbook to present a practically applicable ecosystems theory, Introduction to Systems Ecology helps readers understand how ecosystems work and how they react to disturbances. It demonstrates--with many examples and illustrations--how to apply the theory to explain observations and to make quantitative calculations and predictions. In this book, Sven Erik Jørgensen takes a first step toward integrating thermodynamics, biochemistry, hierarchical organization, and network theory into a holistic theory of systems ecology. The first part of the book covers the laws of thermodynamics and the basic biochemistry of living organisms, as well as the constraints they impose on ecosystems. To grow and develop, however, ecosystems have to evade these thermodynamic and biochemical constraints, so the second part of the book discusses the seven basic properties that enable ecosystems to grow, develop, and survive: They are open systems, far from thermodynamic equilibrium. They are organized hierarchically. They have a high diversity. They have high buffer capacities toward changes. Their components are organized in cooperative networks, which allows for sophisticated feedback, regulation mechanisms, and higher efficiencies. They contain an enormous amount of information embodied in genomes. They have emerging system properties. This timely textbook also looks at how systems ecology is applied in integrated environmental management, particularly in ecological modeling and engineering and in the assessment of ecosystem health using ecological indicators. Acknowledging that there is still much room for improvement, it will inspire ecologists to develop a stronger and more widely applicable ecosystem theory.
Science

Encyclopedia of Ecology

Encyclopedia of Ecology

Author:

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 9780080914565

Category: Science

Page: 3120

View: 661

The groundbreaking Encyclopedia of Ecology provides an authoritative and comprehensive coverage of the complete field of ecology, from general to applied. It includes over 500 detailed entries, structured to provide the user with complete coverage of the core knowledge, accessed as intuitively as possible, and heavily cross-referenced. Written by an international team of leading experts, this revolutionary encyclopedia will serve as a one-stop-shop to concise, stand-alone articles to be used as a point of entry for undergraduate students, or as a tool for active researchers looking for the latest information in the field. Entries cover a range of topics, including: Behavioral Ecology Ecological Processes Ecological Modeling Ecological Engineering Ecological Indicators Ecological Informatics Ecosystems Ecotoxicology Evolutionary Ecology General Ecology Global Ecology Human Ecology System Ecology The first reference work to cover all aspects of ecology, from basic to applied Over 500 concise, stand-alone articles are written by prominent leaders in the field Article text is supported by full-color photos, drawings, tables, and other visual material Fully indexed and cross referenced with detailed references for further study Writing level is suited to both the expert and non-expert Available electronically on ScienceDirect shortly upon publication
Science

Encyclopedia of Ecology

Encyclopedia of Ecology

Author: Brian D. Fath

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444641304

Category: Science

Page: 2780

View: 880

Encyclopedia of Ecology, Second Edition continues the acclaimed work of the previous edition published in 2008. It covers all scales of biological organization, from organisms, to populations, to communities and ecosystems. Laboratory, field, simulation modelling, and theoretical approaches are presented to show how living systems sustain structure and function in space and time. New areas of focus include micro- and macro scales, molecular and genetic ecology, and global ecology (e.g., climate change, earth transformations, ecosystem services, and the food-water-energy nexus) are included. In addition, new, international experts in ecology contribute on a variety of topics. Offers the most broad-ranging and comprehensive resource available in the field of ecology Provides foundational content and suggests further reading Incorporates the expertise of over 500 outstanding investigators in the field of ecology, including top young scientists with both research and teaching experience Includes multimedia resources, such as an Interactive Map Viewer and links to a CSDMS (Community Surface Dynamics Modeling System), an open-source platform for modelers to share and link models dealing with earth system processes
Science

Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology

Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology

Author: Bernard C. Patten

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9781483262741

Category: Science

Page: 614

View: 887

Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, Volume IV continues the organization begun in Volume III to document a meeting, Modeling and Analysis of Ecosystems, held at the University of Georgia on 1-3 March 1973. Several chapters are considerably expanded over their original concept, and several others are included which were not part of the symposium. The book is organized into five parts. Part I contains chapters on estuarine-marine ecosystems. Part II presents models of several terrestrial ecosystems. Part III has chapters devoted to human aspects of ecology. Part IV considers special problems of ecosystem modeling, namely linear versus nonlinear models, aggregation, and validation. Part V, the most extensive section, describes theory in ecosystem analysis. The book’s chapters demonstrate the current scope of systems ecology—its past and present emphasis on parts and mechanisms in simulation modeling, and its movement toward systems analysis and new, more formal consideration of wholes in theory. They make clear that although the systems approach is young in ecology, it has substantially enriched the science both methodologically and conceptually.
Nature

Flourishing Within Limits to Growth

Flourishing Within Limits to Growth

Author: Sven Erik Jørgensen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317551997

Category: Nature

Page: 239

View: 140

Decades of research and discussion have shown that the human population growth and our increased consumption of natural resources cannot continue – there are limits to growth. This volume demonstrates how we might modify and revise our economic systems using nature as a model. The book describes how nature uses three growth forms: biomass, information, and networks, resulting in improved overall ecosystem functioning and co-development. As biomass growth is limited by available resources, nature uses the two other growth forms to achieve higher resource use efficiency. Through a universal application of the three ‘R’s: reduce, reuse, and recycle, nature thus shows us a way forward towards better solutions. However, our current approach, dominated by short-term economic thinking, inhibits full utilization of the three ‘R’s and other successful approaches from nature. Building on ecological principles, the authors present a global model and futures scenario analyses which show that implementation of the proposed changes will lead to a win-win situation. In other words, we can learn from nature how to develop a society that can flourish within the limits to growth with better conditions for prosperity and well-being.

Complexity and Dynamics

Complexity and Dynamics

Author: Wikipedians

Publisher: PediaPress

ISBN:

Category:

Page: 731

View: 370

Technology & Engineering

Ecological Emergy Accounting for a Limited System: General Principles and a Case Study of Macao

Ecological Emergy Accounting for a Limited System: General Principles and a Case Study of Macao

Author: Kampeng Lei

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642451706

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 196

View: 687

This book builds on the analyses of Eugene and Howard Odum and introduces the concept of systems ecology. Ecological emergy accounting represents a breakthrough because it allows researchers to integrate man-made capital and natural capital so that human and natural concerns can be addressed using a consistent system of units. This book develops an emergy accounting model that is suitable for describing urban systems, thereby providing a comprehensive picture of those systems. To make the theory concrete, the authors use China’s Macao Special Administrative Region as a case study, and compare the results for Macao with those of other urban ecosystems around the world in the fields of ecological economy, tourism, waste treatment, gambling industry, land reclamation and resource consumption etc. Dr. Kampeng Lei is an advisory senior technician at the Environmental Protection Bureau, Government of Macao, China; Shaoqi Zhou is a professor at the College of Environment and Energy, the South China University of Technology, and the Guizhou Academy of Sciences, China; Zhishi Wang is a professor at the Faculty of Science and Technology, the University of Macau, China.
Science

The Evolution of American Ecology, 1890-2000

The Evolution of American Ecology, 1890-2000

Author: Sharon E. Kingsland

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 0801881714

Category: Science

Page: 338

View: 615

In the 1890s, several initiatives in American botany converged. The creation of new institutions, such as the New York Botanical Garden, coincided with radical reforms in taxonomic practice and the emergence of an experimental program of research on evolutionary problems. Sharon Kingsland explores how these changes gave impetus to the new field of ecology that was defined at exactly this time. She argues that the creation of institutions and research laboratories, coupled with new intellectual directions in science, were crucial to the development of ecology as a discipline in the United States. The main concern of ecology -- the relationship between organisms and environment -- was central to scientific studies aimed at understanding and controlling the evolutionary process. Kingsland considers the evolutionary context in which ecology arose, especially neo-Lamarckian ideas and the new mutation theory, and explores the relationship between scientific research and broader theories about social progress and the evolution of human civilization. By midcentury, American ecologists were leading the rapid development of ecosystem ecology. At the same time, scientists articulated a sharp critique of modern science and society in the postwar context, foreshadowing the environmental critiques of the 1960s. As the ecosystem concept evolved, so too did debates about how human ecology should be incorporated into the biological sciences. Kingsland concludes with an examination of ecology in the modern urban environment, reflecting on how scientists are now being challenged to overcome disciplinary constraints and produce innovative responses to pressing problems. The Evolution of American Ecology, 1890--2000 offers an innovative study not only of the scientific landscape in turn-of-the-century America, but of current questions in ecological science.
Nature

The Background of Ecology

The Background of Ecology

Author: Robert P. McIntosh

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521270871

Category: Nature

Page: 404

View: 195

The Background of Ecology is a critical and up-to-date review of the origins and development of ecology, with emphasis on the major concepts and theories shared in the ecological traditions of plant and animal ecology, limnology, and oceanography. The work traces developments in each of these somewhat isolated areas and identifies, where possible, parallels or convergences among them. Dr McIntosh describes how ecology emerged as a science in the context of nineteenth-century natural history.