Language Arts & Disciplines

Lenition and Fortition

Lenition and Fortition

Author: Joaquim Brandão de Carvalho

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110211443

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 605

View: 235

There are books on tone, coronals, the internal structure of segments, vowel harmony, and a couple of other topics in phonology. This book aims to fill the gap for Lenition and Fortition, which is one of the first phenomena that was addressed by phonologists in the 19th century, and ever since contributed to phonological thinking. It is certainly one of the core phenomena that is found in the phonology of natural language: together with assimilations, the other important family of phenomena, Lenition and Fortition constitute the heart of what phonology can do to sound. The book aims to provide an overall treatment of the question in its many aspects: historical, typological, synchronic, diachronic, empirical and theoretical. Various current approaches to phonology are represented. The book is structured into three parts: 1) properties and behaviour of Lenition/Fortition, 2) lenition patterns in particular languages and language families, 3) how Lenition/Fortition work. Part 1 describes the properties of lenition and fortition: what counts as such? What kind of behaviour is observed? Which factors bear on it (positional, stress-related)? Which role has it played in phonology since (and even before) the 19th century? The everything-you-always-wanted-to-know-about-lenition-and-fortition philosophy that guides the conception of the book supposes a descriptive, generalisation-oriented style of writing that relies on a kind of phonological lingua franca, rather than on theory-laden vocabulary. Also, no prior knowledge other than about general phonological categories should be required when reading through Part 1. The goal is to provide a broad picture of what lenition is, how it behaves, which factors it is conditioned by and what generalisations it obeys. This record may then be used as a yardstick for competing theories. Part 2 presents a number of case studies that show how Lenition/Fortition behave in a number of languages that include systems which are notoriously emblematic for Lenition/Fortition: Celtic, Western Romance, Germanic and Finnish. Finally, Part 3 is concerned with the analysis of the patterns that have been described in Parts 1 and 2. Given their analytic orientation, Part 3 chapters are theory-specific. They look at the same empirical record, or at a subset thereof, and try to explain what they see. Even though Part 3 chapters are couched in a specific theoretical environment that most of the time supposes prior conceptual knowledge, authors have been asked to assure theoretical interoperability as much as they could.
Language Arts & Disciplines

The Typology and Modelling of Obstruent Lenition and Fortition Processes

The Typology and Modelling of Obstruent Lenition and Fortition Processes

Author: András Cser

Publisher: Akademiai Kiado

ISBN: STANFORD:36105122148120

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 141

View: 259

The author of this book attempts to establish a link between the notions of lenition and fortition on one hand, and the implicational hierarchy of obstruents on the other, through the property of sonority. Earlier theories of lenition and fortition are critically assessed and the typological patterning of obstruent systems is given thorough treatment. Crucial links between these two fields of phonological phenomena are discovered, empirically verified and phonologically explained. The hypothesis is tested against a corpus of diachronic phonological changes from a large number of languages and is further demonstrated through the detailed historical discussion of the obstruent systems of the Germanic languages. In the last chapter the author proposes a model for the representation of manner and place of phonological segments which explains the idiosyncratic behavior of palatal obstruents and correctly predicts a range of phenomena that originally fall outside the intended scope of the in
Education

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Human Communication Sciences and Disorders

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Human Communication Sciences and Disorders

Author: Jack S. Damico

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 9781506353333

Category: Education

Page: 2352

View: 961

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Human Communication Sciences and Disorders is an in-depth encyclopedia aimed at students interested in interdisciplinary perspectives on human communication—both normal and disordered—across the lifespan. This timely and unique set will look at the spectrum of communication disorders, from causation and prevention to testing and assessment; through rehabilitation, intervention, and education. Examples of the interdisciplinary reach of this encyclopedia: A strong focus on health issues, with topics such as Asperger′s syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, anatomy of the human larynx, dementia, etc. Including core psychology and cognitive sciences topics, such as social development, stigma, language acquisition, self-help groups, memory, depression, memory, Behaviorism, and cognitive development Education is covered in topics such as cooperative learning, special education, classroom-based service delivery The editors have recruited top researchers and clinicians across multiple fields to contribute to approximately 640 signed entries across four volumes.
Language Arts & Disciplines

An Introduction to Historical Linguistics

An Introduction to Historical Linguistics

Author: Terry Crowley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195365542

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 409

View: 974

The new edition of this popular introductory text on historical linguistics covers all areas of language change, with a focus on Australia and the Pacific. Topics include sound change, the comparative method, cultural reconstruction and morphological and syntactic change.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Phonological Typology

Phonological Typology

Author: Matthew K. Gordon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780191646355

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 384

View: 221

This book provides an overview of phonological typology: the study of how sounds are distributed across the languages of the world and why they display these distributions and patterns. It examines major phonological phenomena such as phoneme inventories, syllable structure, phonological alternations, stress, tone, intonation, and prosodic morphology, and investigates issues including how common certain types of sounds are cross-linguistically and why; how many languages differentiate questions and statements using intonation; which areas of the world tend to be associated with more complex tone distinctions; and the relationship between cross-linguistic and language-internal frequency. Data are drawn from existing typologies, from the results of a survey of various phonological patterns in the 100-language sample from the World Atlas of Language Structures, and from corpora of individual languages. Matthew Gordon analyses these data and explores the correlations between different - often superficially unrelated - phonological properties to gain insight into the driving forces behind these phenomena. He provides an overview of synchronic and diachronic explanations for the patterns observed and discusses how formal phonological theory has attempted to model the typological data. One of relatively few typological works devoted to phonology, this book will be a valuable resource for phonologists and phoneticians from advanced undergraduate level upwards, as well all those with an interest in language typology.

Lenition and Fortition in Persian Phonological System

Lenition and Fortition in Persian Phonological System

Author: Mahmoud Mobaraki

Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

ISBN: 3659506419

Category:

Page: 128

View: 301

This book is about two important processes in phonology: lenition which is a process whereby consonants become weaker, in the sense of becoming voiced and/or undergoing a diminution in stricture and fortition which is a process whereby a segment becomes 'stronger', or more consonantal, moving up the sonority hierarchy. These two processes are investigated in Persian language system to find the contexts in which they apply according to the framework of generative phonology. I hope the book will be useful in helping the students of linguistics to expand their skills of phonological analysis.
Language Arts & Disciplines

A Critical Introduction to Phonetics

A Critical Introduction to Phonetics

Author: Ken Lodge

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9780826488732

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 256

View: 983

A new stance on the presentation of basic phonetic skills for students of linguistics, using examples drawn from a wide-range of languages.
Language Arts & Disciplines

Historical Semantics and Cognition

Historical Semantics and Cognition

Author: Andreas Blank

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110804195

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 320

View: 336

Language Arts & Disciplines

What is CVCV and why should it be?

What is CVCV and why should it be?

Author: Tobias Scheer

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110908336

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 913

View: 725

This book presents a development of Jean Lowenstamm's idea that phonological constituent structure can be reduced to a strict sequence of non-branching Onsets and non-branching Nuclei. The approach at hand is known as 'CVCV', and emerged from Government Phonology. Since its very beginnings in the early 80s, the central claim of this theory has been that syllable-based generalisations are due to lateral relations among constituents, rather than to the familiar arboreal structure. This book shows that Standard Government Phonology did not go far enough in implementing this idea. CVCV completes the missing steps: structure and causality are fully lateralised. Detailed discussion is offered how basic phonological objects and processes such as Codas, closed syllables, long vowels, geminates, syllabic consonants, vowel-zero alternations, closed syllable shortening, compensatory lengthening, lenition and the like can be represented within the CVCV frame. The first part of the book is called "What is CVCV ?". It presents the properties of the theory. The second part focuses on the reasons why it is worthwhile considering CVCV a valuable and viable approach. The primary goal of the book is not to engage the dialogue with other phonological theories. Rather, it aims at establishing a player in the general game: defining the properties of a theory is always prior to its comparison with other models. In the current OT-dominated phonological scene, then, CVCV appears as a true theory of the 80s insofar as it is representational at core: representations exist and are primitive, rather than arising as accidental results from a heterogeneous set of constraints. The original analyses presented in this book are grounded in the languages that the author is best familiar with, i.e. (Western) Slavic, French, German and some Semitic. Particular attention is paid to diachronic evidence in its relation to the synchronic state of languages.
Language Arts & Disciplines

English Historical Linguistics

English Historical Linguistics

Author: Bettelou Los

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

ISBN: 9789027258205

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 349

View: 452

This volume contains a set of articles based on papers selected from those delivered at the 20th International Conference on English Historical Linguistics (ICEHL, Edinburgh 2018). It focuses on cutting-edge research in the history of English, while reflecting the diversity that exists in the current landscape of English historical linguistics. Chapters showcase traditional as well as novel methodologies in historical linguistics (the latter made possible by the increasing quality and accessibility of digital tools), work on linguistic interfaces (between segmental phonology and prosody, and syntax and information structure) and work on mechanisms of language change (such as Yang’s Tolerance Principle, on the threshold for the productivity of linguistic rules in language acquisition). The volume will be of interest to those working on the historical phonology, morphology, syntax and pragmatics of English, language change, corpus linguistics, computational historical linguistics, and related sub-disciplines.
Language Arts & Disciplines

The Oxford Guide to the Romance Languages

The Oxford Guide to the Romance Languages

Author: Adam Ledgeway

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199677108

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 1260

View: 850

Series statement "Oxford linguistics" from jacket.

A grammar of Papuan Malay

A grammar of Papuan Malay

Author: Angela Kluge

Publisher: Language Science Press

ISBN: 9783944675862

Category:

Page: 880

View: 723

This book presents an in-depth linguistic description of one Papuan Malay variety, based on sixteen hours of recordings of spontaneous narratives and conversations between Papuan Malay speakers. ‘Papuan Malay’ refers to the easternmost varieties of Malay (Austronesian). They are spoken in the coastal areas of West Papua, the western part of the island of New Guinea. The variety described here is spoken along West Papua’s northeast coast. Papuan Malay is the language of wider communication and the first or second language for an ever-increasing number of people of the area. While Papuan Malay is not officially recognized and therefore not used in formal government or educational settings or for religious preaching, it is used in all other domains, including unofficial use in formal settings, and, to some extent, in the public media. After a general introduction to the language, its setting, and history, this grammar discusses the following topics, building up from smaller grammatical constituents to larger ones: phonology, word formation, noun and prepositional phrases, verbal and nonverbal clauses, non-declarative clauses, and conjunctions and constituent combining. Of special interest to linguists, typologists, and Malay specialists are the following in-depth analyses and descriptions: affixation and its productivity across domains of language choice, reduplication and its gesamtbedeutung, personal pronouns and their adnominal uses, demonstratives and locatives and their extended uses, and adnominal possessive relations and their non- canonical uses. This study provides a point of comparison for further studies in other (Papuan) Malay varieties and a starting point for Papuan Malay language development efforts.