Science

Synthetic Organic Sonochemistry

Synthetic Organic Sonochemistry

Author: Jean-Louis Luche

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781489919106

Category: Science

Page: 431

View: 752

TEAN-LOUIS LUCHE A French poet of this eentury, Pierre Mae Orlan, wrote "Adventure does not exist, it is only in the mind of he who is pursuing it, and, as soon as it is at one's finger tips, it vanishes to come back to life, far away, in a different shape, at the frontiers of imagination". This sentence could be used to define the adventure that many sonochemists experienced. Most of them did not even suspect that the "laboratory trick" they were using was the first contact with a considerable amount of science. If a personal note is allowed here, it ean be interesting to mention the part played by chance in my involvement in sonochemistry. Almost 20 years ago, we had to perform an apparently simple Grignard reaetion with n-butylmagnesium bromide and geranial, but the results were repeatedly unsatisfactory. The one-pot Barbier technique was attempted, also without success. From my studies at the University, I imagined that the failure of the latter reaction could be caused by a common phenomenon known by solid state chemists as passivation, which in some cases can be overcome by ultrasonication. By chance, an ultrasonie bath was sitting on the next beneh, borrowed to clean some equipment. We clamped our reluctant reaction mixture into the bath, the reaction proceeded vigorously, and ... the adventure started. Without knowing anything about cavitation, high energies, ete., we had an illustration of Goethe's word "Am Anfang war die Tat" (at the Beginning was the Act).
Science

Organic Sonochemistry

Organic Sonochemistry

Author: Jean-Marc Lévêque

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319985541

Category: Science

Page: 123

View: 679

This book provides informative, useful, and stimulating reading on the topic of organic sonochemistry – the core of ultrasound-based applications. Given the increasing interest in new and improved technologies, allied to their green and sustainable character (not always a valid premise), there is a great attraction for organic chemists to apply these protocols in synthesis and process chemistry. Unfortunately, as with other enabling technologies, many researchers new to the field have received a simple and dishonest message: just switch on! Therefore a significant portion of sonochemical syntheses lack reproducibility (surprisingly cavitation control and/or ultrasonic parameters are omitted) and the actual role of sonication remains uncertain. While this book does not provide a detailed description of fundamentals, the introductory remarks highlight the importance of cavitational effects and their experimental control. It presents a number of concepts of sonochemical reactivity and empirical rules with pertinent examples, often from classical and recent literature. It then focuses on scenarios of current interest where organic chemistry, and synthesis in particular, may benefit from sonication in terms of both chemical and mechanical activation. The “sustainable corner” of this field is largely exemplified through concepts like atom economy, renewable sources, wasteless syntheses, and benign solvents as reaction media. This book is useful for both researchers and graduate students, especially those familiar with the field of sonochemistry and applications of ultrasound in general. However, it is also of interest to a broader audience as it discusses the fundamentals, techniques, and experimental skills necessary for scientists wishing to initiate the use of ultrasound in their domain of expertise.
Science

Sustainable Organic Synthesis

Sustainable Organic Synthesis

Author: Dr Stefano Protti

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 9781839162039

Category: Science

Page: 602

View: 114

Recent years have seen huge growth in the area of sustainable chemistry. In order to meet the chemical needs of the global population whilst minimising impacts on health and the environment it is essential to keep reconsidering and improving synthetic processes. Sustainable Organic Synthesis is a comprehensive collection of contributions, provided by specialists in Green Chemistry, covering topics ranging from catalytic approaches to benign and alternative reaction media, and innovative and more efficient technologies.
Science

Sonochemistry: New Opportunities For Green Chemistry

Sonochemistry: New Opportunities For Green Chemistry

Author: Gregory Chatel

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9781786341297

Category: Science

Page: 188

View: 951

The application of ultrasound waves to chemical reactions — sonochemistry — has huge potential for innovation in eco-friendly and eco-efficient chemistry. Sonochemistry: New Opportunities for Green Chemistry first introduces the basics of ultrasonic waves and the history of sonochemistry before moving on to look at acoustic cavitation and the estimation of ultrasonic parameters. After this comes a discussion of the equipment needed for experimentation with sonochemistry. Finally there is an in-depth look at green sonochemistry in different fields of research, covering concepts such as new combinations of ultrasound with ionic liquids, microwave irradiation, enzyme combination, and sono-assisted electrochemistry. In conclusion, distinguished sonochemists from around the world share their opinions on the green sonochemistry, and their predictions in the field.Undergraduate and graduate students in chemistry, and practitioners of ultrasonic technology will gain a unique insight into the opportunities and challenges facing sonochemistry today in its theoretical and practical implementation.
Science

Activation Methods

Activation Methods

Author: Jean-Philippe Goddard

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781786305107

Category: Science

Page: 166

View: 620

Activation Methods examines recent improvements in the utilization of ultrasonic waves and pressurized gases to generate reactions. A straightforward method to use, sonochemistry allows chemical reactions to be carried out under ultrasound without the need for external heat, reagents or catalysts – leading to high yields and the production of a minimum amount of waste. This book presents an overview of the main applications of sonochemistry in green organic chemistry, with an emphasis on texts published within the last few years. High-pressure chemical reactions offer innovative solutions to problems relating to synthesis. They allow access to new products and a further understanding of reaction mechanisms. This book presents the characteristics of hyperbaric activation, which allow the integration of an arsenal of tools for green chemistry, such as the lowering of energy costs and of by-products, as well as the possibility of using substrates that are sterically congested and generally inert.
Atmospheric chemistry

AFOSR Chemical & Atmospheric Sciences Program Review

AFOSR Chemical & Atmospheric Sciences Program Review

Author: United States. Air Force. Directorate of Chemical and Atmospheric Sciences

Publisher:

ISBN: MINN:30000010501397

Category: Atmospheric chemistry

Page:

View: 427

Technology & Engineering

Applied Homogeneous Catalysis

Applied Homogeneous Catalysis

Author: Arno Behr

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527326419

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 717

View: 937

Adopting a didactic approach at an advanced, masters level, this concise textbook provides an array of questions & answers and features numerous industrial case studies and examples, with references for further, more detailed reading and to the latest peer-reviewed articles at the end of each chapter. A significant feature is the book's treatment of more recently developed catalytic processes and their applications in the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries, with an indication of their present and future commercial impact. Written by a dedicated lecturer with a wealth of experience in industry, this is an invaluable tool for practicing chemical engineers and chemists who need to advance their education in this vibrant and expanding field.
Science

Green Chemistry

Green Chemistry

Author: Bela Torok

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780128095492

Category: Science

Page: 1058

View: 252

Green Chemistry: An Inclusive Approach provides a broad overview of green chemistry for researchers from either an environmental science or chemistry background, starting at a more elementary level, incorporating more advanced concepts, and including more chemistry as the book progresses. Every chapter includes recent, state-of-the-art references, in particular, review articles, to introduce researchers to this field of interest and provide them with information that can be easily built upon. By bringing together experts in multiple subdisciplines of green chemistry, the editors have curated a single central resource for an introduction to the discipline as a whole. Topics include a broad array of research fields, including the chemistry of Earth’s atmosphere, water and soil, the synthesis of fine chemicals, and sections on pharmaceuticals, plastics, energy related issues (energy storage, fuel cells, solar, and wind energy conversion etc., greenhouse gases and their handling, chemical toxicology issues of everyday products (from perfumes to detergents or clothing), and environmental policy issues. Introduces the topic of green chemistry with an overview of key concepts Expands upon presented concepts with the latest research and applications, providing both the breadth and depth researchers need Includes a broad range of application based problems to make the content accessible for professional researchers and undergraduate and graduate students Authored by experts in a broad range of fields, providing insider information on the aspects or challenges of a given field that are most important and urgent
Science

Ultrasonics International 93

Ultrasonics International 93

Author: Yong Zhou

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 9781483183930

Category: Science

Page: 880

View: 574

Ultrasonics International 93: Conference Proceedings presents a comprehensive account of the presentations given in the Ultrasonics International 93 conference. It discusses a blood flow mapping system using ultrasonic waves. It addresses the dynamical response functions of elastically anisotropic solids. Some of the topics covered in the book are the ultrasonic waves propagation in a liquid producing radicals; ultrasonic characterization of interfaces; surface acoustic wave measurements; line-focus-beam acoustic microscopy; investigation of fatigue cracks in steels using spherical lens scanning acoustic microscopy; and the phenomenon of ultrasonic light diffraction. The description of bichromatic tunable acousto-optic separator is fully covered. The diffraction phenomenon affecting the properties of the fibre-optic sensor system is discussed in detail. The text describes in depth the opto-acoustic measurement of ultrasound velocity in a solidifying polymer. The evaluation of microfracture due to thermal shock using acoustic emission is completely presented. A chapter is devoted to the detection of a weak adhesive and adherent interface in bonded joints. The book can provide useful information to engineers, students, and researchers.
Technology & Engineering

Research Anthology on Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications of Nanomaterials

Research Anthology on Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications of Nanomaterials

Author: Management Association, Information Resources

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781799887362

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 1917

View: 362

The use of nanotechnologies continues to grow, as nanomaterials have proven their versatility and use in many different fields and industries within the scientific profession. Using nanotechnology, materials can be made lighter, more durable, more reactive, and more efficient leading nanoscale materials to enhance many everyday products and processes. With many different sizes, shapes, and internal structures, the applications are endless. These uses range from pharmaceutics to materials such as cement or cloth, electronics, environmental sustainability, and more. Therefore, there has been a recent surge of research focused on the synthesis and characterizations of these nanomaterials to better understand how they can be used, their applications, and the many different types. The Research Anthology on Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications of Nanomaterials seeks to address not only how nanomaterials are created, used, or characterized, but also to apply this knowledge to the multidimensional industries, fields, and applications of nanomaterials and nanoscience. This includes topics such as both natural and manmade nanomaterials; the size, shape, reactivity, and other essential characteristics of nanomaterials; challenges and potential effects of using nanomaterials; and the advantages of nanomaterials with multidisciplinary uses. This book is ideally designed for researchers, engineers, practitioners, industrialists, educators, strategists, policymakers, scientists, and students working in fields that include materials engineering, engineering science, nanotechnology, biotechnology, microbiology, drug design and delivery, medicine, and more.
Technology & Engineering

Advanced Solid Catalysts for Renewable Energy Production

Advanced Solid Catalysts for Renewable Energy Production

Author: González-Cortés, Sergio

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 9781522539049

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 520

View: 668

In recent years, the replacement of non-renewable crude oil by renewable sources has been addressed, particularly in developed countries. Its main driving force has been the increasing demand and limited reserves of fossil fuels, the greenhouse gas effect, and the need of securing energy supplies. Advanced Solid Catalysts for Renewable Energy Production provides emerging research on renewable energy production, catalysts, and environmental effects of increased productivity. While highlighting the challenges for future generations to develop in the sustainable energy age, readers will learn the importance of new approaches not only for synthesizing more active and selective (nano)catalysts, but also, for designing innovative catalytic processes that can eventually meet the growing energy efficiency demand and overcome the environmental issues. This book is an important resource for academicians, university researchers, technology developers, and graduate level students.
Science

Nontraditional Activation Methods in Green and Sustainable Applications

Nontraditional Activation Methods in Green and Sustainable Applications

Author: Bela Torok

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780128190159

Category: Science

Page: 604

View: 361

Nontraditional Activation Methods in Green and Sustainable Applications: Microwaves; Ultrasounds; Photo-, Electro- and Mechan-ochemistry and High Hydrostatic Pressure provides a broad overview of non-traditional activation methods to help readers identify and use appropriate approaches in reducing the environmental impact of their work. Sections discuss the fundamental principles of each method and provide examples of their practical use, illustrating their usefulness. Given the importance of expanding laboratory based technologies to the industrial level, chapters that cover both existing and potential industrial and environmental applications are also included. Highlighting the usefulness and adaptability of these methods for a range of practical applications, this book is a practical guide for both those involved with the design and application of synthetic methodologies and those interested in the implementation and impact of green chemistry principles in practice, from synthetic and medicinal chemists, to food developers and environmental policy planners. Discusses, and critically assesses, the advantages of non-traditional activation methods in green and sustainable chemistry applications Features individual chapters written by renowned experts in the field Contains extensive, state-of-the-art reference sections, providing critically filtered information to readers