Science

Pastoral practices in High Asia

Pastoral practices in High Asia

Author: Hermann Kreutzmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400738461

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 747

In conventional views, pastoralism was classified as a stage of civilization that needed to be abolished and transcended in order to reach a higher level of development. In this context, global approaches to modernize a rural society have been ubiquitous phenomena independent of ideological contexts. The 20th century experienced a variety of concepts to settle mobile groups and to transfer their lifestyles to modern perceptions. Permanent settlements are the vivid expression of an ideology-driven approach. Modernization theory captured all walks of life and tried to optimize breeding techniques, pasture utilization, transport and processing concepts. New insights into other aspects of pastoralism such as its role as an adaptive strategy to use marginal resources in remote locations with difficult access could only be understood as a critique of capitalist and communist concepts of modernization. In recent years a renaissance of modernization theory-led development activities can be observed. Higher inputs from external funding, fencing of pastures and settlement of pastoralists in new townships are the vivid expression of 'modern' pastoralism in urban contexts. The new modernization programme incorporates resettlement and transformation of lifestyles as to be justified by environmental pressure in order to reduce degradation in the age of climate change.
Science

Pastoral practices in High Asia

Pastoral practices in High Asia

Author: Hermann Kreutzmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400738454

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 713

In conventional views, pastoralism was classified as a stage of civilization that needed to be abolished and transcended in order to reach a higher level of development. In this context, global approaches to modernize a rural society have been ubiquitous phenomena independent of ideological contexts. The 20th century experienced a variety of concepts to settle mobile groups and to transfer their lifestyles to modern perceptions. Permanent settlements are the vivid expression of an ideology-driven approach. Modernization theory captured all walks of life and tried to optimize breeding techniques, pasture utilization, transport and processing concepts. New insights into other aspects of pastoralism such as its role as an adaptive strategy to use marginal resources in remote locations with difficult access could only be understood as a critique of capitalist and communist concepts of modernization. In recent years a renaissance of modernization theory-led development activities can be observed. Higher inputs from external funding, fencing of pastures and settlement of pastoralists in new townships are the vivid expression of 'modern' pastoralism in urban contexts. The new modernization programme incorporates resettlement and transformation of lifestyles as to be justified by environmental pressure in order to reduce degradation in the age of climate change.
Science

Pastoral practices in High Asia

Pastoral practices in High Asia

Author: Hermann Kreutzmann

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9400738471

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 136

In conventional views, pastoralism was classified as a stage of civilization that needed to be abolished and transcended in order to reach a higher level of development. In this context, global approaches to modernize a rural society have been ubiquitous phenomena independent of ideological contexts. The 20th century experienced a variety of concepts to settle mobile groups and to transfer their lifestyles to modern perceptions. Permanent settlements are the vivid expression of an ideology-driven approach. Modernization theory captured all walks of life and tried to optimize breeding techniques, pasture utilization, transport and processing concepts. New insights into other aspects of pastoralism such as its role as an adaptive strategy to use marginal resources in remote locations with difficult access could only be understood as a critique of capitalist and communist concepts of modernization. In recent years a renaissance of modernization theory-led development activities can be observed. Higher inputs from external funding, fencing of pastures and settlement of pastoralists in new townships are the vivid expression of 'modern' pastoralism in urban contexts. The new modernization programme incorporates resettlement and transformation of lifestyles as to be justified by environmental pressure in order to reduce degradation in the age of climate change.
Political Science

Everyday Energy Politics in Central Asia and the Caucasus

Everyday Energy Politics in Central Asia and the Caucasus

Author: David Gullette

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317302520

Category: Political Science

Page: 144

View: 988

The perception of Central Asia and its place in the world has come to be shaped by its large oil and gas reserves. Literature on energy in the region has thus largely focused on related geopolitical issues and national policies. However, little is known about citizens’ needs within this broader context of commodities that connect the energy networks of China, Russia and the West. This multidisciplinary special issue brings together anthropologists, economists, geographers and political scientists to examine the role of all forms of energy (here: oil, gas, hydropower and solar power) and their products (especially electricity) in people’s daily lives throughout Central Asia and the Caucasus. The papers in this issue ask how energy is understood as an everyday resource, as a necessity and a source of opportunity, a challenge or even as an indicator of exclusionary practices. We enquire into the role and views of energy sector workers, rural consumers and urban communities, and their experiences of energy companies’ and national policies. We further examine the legacy of Soviet and more recent domestic energy policies, the environmental impact of energy use as well as the political impact of citizens’ energy grievances. This book was published as a special issue of Central Asian Survey.
Social Science

Pastoral Vulnerability to Socio-political and Climate Stresses

Pastoral Vulnerability to Socio-political and Climate Stresses

Author: Asghar Tahmasebi

Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster

ISBN: 9783643903570

Category: Social Science

Page: 169

View: 556

Based on in-depth field work and living with the nomads for a whole year, Asghar Tahmasebi provides a vivid insight into the Shahsevans' strategy to cope with both political impacts and changing environmental conditions of their traditional way of life.
Science

Mapping Transition in the Pamirs

Mapping Transition in the Pamirs

Author: Hermann Kreutzmann

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319231983

Category: Science

Page: 274

View: 927

By emphasizing on the Pamir region a comprehensive overview of path-dependent and recent developments in a remote mountain region is provided in this book. Overall neglect in the mountainous periphery is contrasted by shifting the centre of attention to the Pamirs situated at the interface between South and Central Asia. From colonial times to now there has been a debate on grasping and locating the area. Here field-work based contributions are collected to provide a variety of perspectives on the Pamirs highlighting transformation and transition in Post-Soviet societies as well as in Afghanistan and Pakistan. The similar ecological environment across borders features the common ground while analyzing development processes in a set of case studies that aim at highlighting certain aspects of regional development.
Technology & Engineering

Rangeland Stewardship in Central Asia

Rangeland Stewardship in Central Asia

Author: Victor R. Squires

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400753679

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 460

View: 491

This volume of 18 chapters is the work of more than 30 authors, many of whom are natives of the Central Asian region or are researchers who have dedicated a large part of their working lives to studying the development dynamics in this vast and fascinating region. The work focuses on the 20 years since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990. But it also traces the attitudes of land users to the land dating from before the late 19th century, when Russian conquest and colonization occurred, and through the upheavals caused by Soviet-style collectivization and sedentarization. The book is rich with new data presented in 68 easy to understand charts/graphs (many in color) and 50 Tables. Information was generated for this book by experts working in-country. It presents for the first time in English a digest of plethora of previously inaccessible Russian reports and scientific literature that will be invaluable for development agencies, including UN, World Bank, Asian Development Bank, Islamic Bank as well as to students of this vast and fascinating region who seek up to date and authoritive information.
Antiques & Collectibles

The Gujjars Vol:05 Edited by Dr. Javaid Rahi -Book Series on Gujjar History and Culture

The Gujjars Vol:05 Edited by Dr. Javaid Rahi -Book Series on Gujjar History and Culture

Author: Javaid Rahi

Publisher: Jammu and Kashmir Acacademy of Art, Culture , Languages , Jammu

ISBN:

Category: Antiques & Collectibles

Page: 438

View: 712

The Gujjars Vol: 05 by Dr. Javaid Rahi (Book Series on History & Culture of Gujjars) 'The Gujjars' is a book series that highlights the History of Gujjar Tribe besides their Cultural Heritage and Socio-Economic issues..
Social Science

Routledge Handbook of Highland Asia

Routledge Handbook of Highland Asia

Author: Jelle J.P. Wouters

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9781000598582

Category: Social Science

Page: 456

View: 308

The Routledge Handbook of Highland Asia is the first comprehensive and critical overview of the ethnographic and anthropological work in Highland Asia over the past half a century. Opening up a grand new space for critical engagement, the handbook presents Highland Asia as a world-region that cuts across the traditional divides inherited from colonial and Cold War area divisions - the Indian Subcontinent/South Asia, Southeast Asia, China/East Asia, and Central Asia. Thirty-two chapters assess the history of research, identify ethnographic trends, and evaluate a range of analytical themes that developed in particular settings of Highland Asia. They cover varied landscapes and communities, from Kyrgyzstan to India, from Bhutan to Vietnam and bring local voices and narratives relating trade and tribute, ritual and resistance, pilgrimage and prophecy, modernity and marginalization, capital and cosmos to the fore. The handbook shows that for millennia, Highland Asians have connected far-flung regions through movements of peoples, goods and ideas, and at all times have been the enactors, repositories, and mediators of world-historical processes. Taken together, the contributors and chapters subvert dominant lowland narratives by privileging primarily highland vantages that reveal Highland Asia as an ecumune and prism that refracts and generates global history, social theory, and human imagination. In the currently unfolding Asian Century, this compels us to reorient and re-envision Highland Asia, in ethnography, in theory, and in the connections between this world-region, made of hills, highlands and mountains, and a planetary context. The handbook reveals both regional commonalities and diversities, generalities and specificities, and a broad orientation to key themes in the region. An indispensable reference work, this handbook fills a significant gap in the literature and will be of interest to academics, researchers and students interested in Highland Asia, Zomia Studies, Anthropology, Comparative Politics, Conceptual History and Sociology, Southeast Asian Studies, Central Asian Studies and South Asian Studies as well as Asian Studies in general.
Science

Mountain Landscapes in Transition

Mountain Landscapes in Transition

Author: Udo Schickhoff

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030702380

Category: Science

Page: 656

View: 121

This book compiles available knowledge of the response of mountain ecosystems to recent climate and land use change and intends to bridge the gap between science, policy and the community concerned. The chapters present key concepts, major drivers and key processes of mountain response, providing transdisciplinary orientation to mountain studies incorporating experiences of academics, community leaders and policy-makers from developed and less developed countries. The book chapters are arranged in two sections. The first section concerns the response processes of mountain environments to climate change. This section addresses climate change itself (past, current and future changes of temperature and precipitation) and its impacts on the cryosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and human-environment systems. The second section focuses on the response processes of mountain environments to land use/land cover change. The case studies address effects of changing agriculture and pastoralism, forest/water resources management and urbanization processes, landscape management, and biodiversity conservation. The book is designed as an interdisciplinary publication which critically evaluates developments in mountains of the world with contributions from both social and natural sciences.
Nature

Making way: developing national legal and policy frameworks for pastoral mobility

Making way: developing national legal and policy frameworks for pastoral mobility

Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN: 9789251357002

Category: Nature

Page: 84

View: 947

Mobility is a vital strategy employed by pastoralists to capitalize on the scarce availability of resources in variable environments, making pastoralism economically feasible and environmentally sustainable. Through mobility, pastoralists can produce animal-sourced products that provide food and income security to populations in the world’s rangelands. Such a practice also provides a range of benefits to the environment while fostering the capacity to adapt to changing social and natural environments. With a few exceptions, policies have largely not kept up with new scholarship and development discourse that acknowledges the importance of mobility to pastoralism. There is a lag in and resistance to legislating in favor of mobility. The overall objective of this handbook is to guide the development of legal and policy frameworks for securing mobility for various pastoral production systems and practices. This handbook calls for the legal recognition and securing of pastoral mobility as a way of safeguarding and facilitating a continuous stream of economic and social benefits for pastoralists, countries, and the environment. It facilitates a deeper understanding of pastoral mobility through examples and case studies drawn from various parts of the world and identifies considerations to be borne in mind when legislating for mobility.
Social Science

Sustainable Land Management in Greater Central Asia

Sustainable Land Management in Greater Central Asia

Author: Victor R. Squires

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317394051

Category: Social Science

Page: 310

View: 922

Greater Central Asia encompasses a vast area that includes deserts, natural grasslands, steppes, shrublands and alpine regions. Many of these land types are degraded and productivity is falling at a time when human populations and livestock inventories are on the rise. Ecosystem stability and biodiversity are under threat and there is an urgent need to develop more sustainable land management regimes. This book uses an integrated regional approach to provide a comprehensive exploration of sustainable land development in Central Asia. An interdisciplinary team of experts analyses the economic, ecological, sociological, technological and political factors surrounding sustainable land and water management in the region, sharing potential problems and solutions. As international concern about desertification grows, the book concludes by asking how the region is likely to develop in the future. This book will be of value to scholars, students, policy makers and NGOs with an interest in sustainable development in Central Asia.