Science

Routes to Cellulosic Ethanol

Routes to Cellulosic Ethanol

Author: Marcos Silveira Buckeridge

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387927404

Category: Science

Page: 270

View: 836

The perception that civilization is crossing a period of Global Climatic Changes that can seriously threaten our lifestyle, along with energy security and the search for prosperity, are the main drivers that are pushing men to use more biomass as a source of energy. It will be crucial that such intent will include a large parcel of sustainability so that more renewable energy becomes available for populations. Because large amounts of energy are “hidden” in carbon polymers made by plants, notably carbohydrates, it is obvious that if technologies are developed to produce liquid fuels such as ethanol from carbohydrate polymers such as cellulose, men could significantly increase energy sustainability . This book reviews general aspects of biomass utilization for bioenergy production as well as strategies using biochemistry, molecular biology, chemistry and physics to disassemble plant cell walls. Recent discoveries of basic science under development in several laboratories in the world are reviewed by experts that have been intensively working with many aspects that will impact the development of the technology of production of cellulosic ethanol.
Science

Routes to Cellulosic Ethanol

Routes to Cellulosic Ethanol

Author: Marcos Silveira Buckeridge

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0387927395

Category: Science

Page: 270

View: 234

The perception that civilization is crossing a period of Global Climatic Changes that can seriously threaten our lifestyle, along with energy security and the search for prosperity, are the main drivers that are pushing men to use more biomass as a source of energy. It will be crucial that such intent will include a large parcel of sustainability so that more renewable energy becomes available for populations. Because large amounts of energy are “hidden” in carbon polymers made by plants, notably carbohydrates, it is obvious that if technologies are developed to produce liquid fuels such as ethanol from carbohydrate polymers such as cellulose, men could significantly increase energy sustainability . This book reviews general aspects of biomass utilization for bioenergy production as well as strategies using biochemistry, molecular biology, chemistry and physics to disassemble plant cell walls. Recent discoveries of basic science under development in several laboratories in the world are reviewed by experts that have been intensively working with many aspects that will impact the development of the technology of production of cellulosic ethanol.
Technology & Engineering

Handbook of Cellulosic Ethanol

Handbook of Cellulosic Ethanol

Author: Ananda S. Amarasekara

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118878422

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 608

View: 465

Comprehensive coverage on the growing science and technologyof producing ethanol from the world's abundant cellulosicbiomass The inevitable decline in petroleum reserves and its impact ongasoline prices, combined with climate change concerns, havecontributed to current interest in renewable fuels. Bioethanol isthe most successful renewable transport fuel—with corn andsugarcane ethanol currently in wide use as blend-in fuels in theUnited States, Brazil, and a few other countries. However, thereare a number of major drawbacks in these first-generation biofuels,such as their effect on food prices, net energy balance, and poorgreenhouse gas mitigation. Alternatively, cellulosic ethanol can beproduced from abundant lignocellulosic biomass forms such asagricultural or municipal wastes, forest residues, fast growingtrees, or grasses grown in marginal lands, and should be produciblein substantial amounts to meet growing global energy demand. The Handbook of Cellulosic Ethanol covers all aspects ofthis new and vital alternative fuel source, providing readers withthe background, scientific theory, and recent research progress inproducing cellulosic ethanol via different biochemical routes, aswell as future directions. The seventeen chapters includeinformation on: Advantages of cellulosic ethanol over first-generation ethanolas a transportation fuel Various biomass feedstocks that can be used to make cellulosicethanol Details of the aqueous phase or cellulolysis route,pretreatment, enzyme or acid saccharification, fermentation,simultaneous saccharification fermentation, consolidatedbioprocessing, genetically modified microorganisms, and yeasts Details of the syngas fermentation or thermochemical route,gasifiers, syngas cleaning, microorganisms for syngas fermentation,and chemical catalysts for syngas-to-ethanol conversion Distillation and dehydration to fuel-grade ethanol Techno-economical aspects and the future of cellulosicethanol Readership Chemical engineers, chemists, and technicians working onrenewable energy and fuels in industry, research institutions, anduniversities. The Handbook can also be used by studentsinterested in biofuels and renewable energy issues.
Science

Advances of Basic Science for Second Generation Bioethanol from Sugarcane

Advances of Basic Science for Second Generation Bioethanol from Sugarcane

Author: Marcos S. Buckeridge

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319498263

Category: Science

Page: 219

View: 780

This book focuses on the basic science recently produced in Brazil for the improvement of sugarcane as a bioenergy crop and as a raw material for 2nd generation bioethanol production. It reports achievements that have been advancing the science of cell walls, enzymes, genetics, and sustainability related to sugarcane technologies and give continuity to the research reported in the “Routes to Cellulosic Ethanol”, from Springer. The Introduction (Chapter I) explains how the National Institute of Science and Technology of Bioethanol, founded in 2008 in Brazil, became part of the main international initiatives that started to search for forms to use biomass for bioethanol production in Brazil, US and Europe. Part I reports the advances in plant cell wall composition, structure and architecture, and physical characteristics of sugarcane biomass. These discoveries are opening the way to increased efficiency of pretreatments and hydrolysis, being therefore important information for 2nd generation processes as well as for biorefinery initiatives. Part II focuses on the discovery and characterization of hydrolases from microorganisms that could be used in industrial processes. Recent advances in the search for hydrolases using metagenomics is reported. A great number of genes and enzymes from microorganisms have been discovered, affording improvement of enzyme cocktails better adapted to sugarcane biomass. Part III reports two key issues in the process of 2G ethanol, pentose fermentation and sugarcane genetics. These are the discoveries of new yeast species capable of producing ethanol more efficiently from xylose and the advances made on the sugarcane genetics, a key issue to design varieties adapted to 2G ethanol production. Part IV approaches sustainability through two chapters, one discussing the sustainability of the sugarcane agricultural and environmental system and another discussing how national and mainly international policies of Brazil regarding 2G ethanol production affected the country’s strategies to establish itself as an international player in renewable energy area.
Delegated legislation

Federal Register

Federal Register

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UCR:31210024840975

Category: Delegated legislation

Page:

View: 489

Science

Lignocellulose Conversion

Lignocellulose Conversion

Author: Vincenza Faraco

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642378614

Category: Science

Page: 199

View: 342

Bioethanol has been recognized as a potential alternative to petroleum-derived transportation fuels. Even if cellulosic biomass is less expensive than corn and sugarcane, the higher costs for its conversion make the near-term price of cellulosic ethanol higher than that of corn ethanol and even more than that of sugarcane ethanol. Conventional process for bioethanol production from lignocellulose includes a chemical/physical pre-treatment of lignocellulose for lignin removal, mostly based on auto hydrolysis and acid hydrolysis, followed by saccharification of the free accessible cellulose portions of the biomass. The highest yields of fermentable sugars from cellulose portion are achieved by means of enzymatic hydrolysis, currently carried out using a mix of cellulases from the fungus Trichoderma reesei. Reduction of (hemi)cellulases production costs is strongly required to increase competitiveness of second generation bioethanol production. The final step is the fermentation of sugars obtained from saccharification, typically performed by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The current process is optimized for 6-carbon sugars fermentation, since most of yeasts cannot ferment 5-carbon sugars. Thus, research is aimed at exploring new engineered yeasts abilities to co-ferment 5- and 6-carbon sugars. Among the main routes to advance cellulosic ethanol, consolidate bio-processing, namely direct conversion of biomass into ethanol by a genetically modified microbes, holds tremendous potential to reduce ethanol production costs. Finally, the use of all the components of lignocellulose to produce a large spectra of biobased products is another challenge for further improving competitiveness of second generation bioethanol production, developing a biorefinery.
Science

Compendium of Bioenergy Plants

Compendium of Bioenergy Plants

Author: Hong Luo

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781466596375

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 502

This book contains the most comprehensive reviews on the latest development of switchgrass research including the agronomy of the plant, the use of endophytes and mycorrhizae for biomass production, genetics and breeding of bioenergy related traits, molecular genetics and molecular breeding, genomics, transgenics, processing, bioconversion, biosyst
Science

Handbook of Clean Energy Systems, 6 Volume Set

Handbook of Clean Energy Systems, 6 Volume Set

Author: Jinyue Yan

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118388587

Category: Science

Page: 4032

View: 180

The Handbook of Clean Energy Systems brings together an international team of experts to present a comprehensive overview of the latest research, developments and practical applications throughout all areas of clean energy systems. Consolidating information which is currently scattered across a wide variety of literature sources, the handbook covers a broad range of topics in this interdisciplinary research field including both fossil and renewable energy systems. The development of intelligent energy systems for efficient energy processes and mitigation technologies for the reduction of environmental pollutants is explored in depth, and environmental, social and economic impacts are also addressed. Topics covered include: Volume 1 - Renewable Energy: Biomass resources and biofuel production; Bioenergy Utilization; Solar Energy; Wind Energy; Geothermal Energy; Tidal Energy. Volume 2 - Clean Energy Conversion Technologies: Steam/Vapor Power Generation; Gas Turbines Power Generation; Reciprocating Engines; Fuel Cells; Cogeneration and Polygeneration. Volume 3 - Mitigation Technologies: Carbon Capture; Negative Emissions System; Carbon Transportation; Carbon Storage; Emission Mitigation Technologies; Efficiency Improvements and Waste Management; Waste to Energy. Volume 4 - Intelligent Energy Systems: Future Electricity Markets; Diagnostic and Control of Energy Systems; New Electric Transmission Systems; Smart Grid and Modern Electrical Systems; Energy Efficiency of Municipal Energy Systems; Energy Efficiency of Industrial Energy Systems; Consumer Behaviors; Load Control and Management; Electric Car and Hybrid Car; Energy Efficiency Improvement. Volume 5 - Energy Storage: Thermal Energy Storage; Chemical Storage; Mechanical Storage; Electrochemical Storage; Integrated Storage Systems. Volume 6 - Sustainability of Energy Systems: Sustainability Indicators, Evaluation Criteria, and Reporting; Regulation and Policy; Finance and Investment; Emission Trading; Modeling and Analysis of Energy Systems; Energy vs. Development; Low Carbon Economy; Energy Efficiencies and Emission Reduction. Key features: Comprising over 3,500 pages in 6 volumes, HCES presents a comprehensive overview of the latest research, developments and practical applications throughout all areas of clean energy systems, consolidating a wealth of information which is currently scattered across a wide variety of literature sources. In addition to renewable energy systems, HCES also covers processes for the efficient and clean conversion of traditional fuels such as coal, oil and gas, energy storage systems, mitigation technologies for the reduction of environmental pollutants, and the development of intelligent energy systems. Environmental, social and economic impacts of energy systems are also addressed in depth. Published in full colour throughout. Fully indexed with cross referencing within and between all six volumes. Edited by leading researchers from academia and industry who are internationally renowned and active in their respective fields. Published in print and online. The online version is a single publication (i.e. no updates), available for one-time purchase or through annual subscription.
Science

Biofuels in Brazil

Biofuels in Brazil

Author: Silvio Silvério da Silva

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783319050201

Category: Science

Page: 435

View: 515

This book discusses the commercialization of biofuels and the Brazilian government policies for the promotion of renewable energy program in Brazil, which could be a learning module for several countries for implementing biofuels policy to improve their socioeconomic status and make them energy independent. Researchers in academia and industries, policy makers, and economic analysts will be assisted by important source of information in their ongoing research and future perspectives. This book will benefit graduate and postgraduate students of chemical and biochemical engineering, forestry, microbiology, biochemistry, biotechnology, applied chemistry, environmental science, sustainable energy, and biotech business disciplines by signifying the applied aspects of bioenergy production from various natural sources and their implications. Graduate and postgraduate students as well as postdoctoral researchers will find clear concepts of feedstock analysis, feedstock degradation, microbial fermentation, genetic engineering, renewable energy generation and storage, climate changes, and techno-economic analysis of biofuels production technologies.
Science

Plant-Based Genetic Tools for Biofuels Production

Plant-Based Genetic Tools for Biofuels Production

Author: Daniela Defavari do Nascimento

Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers

ISBN: 9781681084619

Category: Science

Page: 225

View: 241

Biofuels are currently used as a viable alternative energy source in several countries. Plant-Based Genetic Tools for Biofuels Production explains biotechnological techniques and concepts that are applied to increase biofuel yield from plants and algae. Chapters of the book cover a variety of topics: the basic research techniques (cell suspension, embryogenesis, protoplast fusion), plant genetics (plant DNA mutations, new plant breeding techniques, viral genetic vectors for heterologous gene expression, sub cellular proteomes), genomic resources and bioinformatics tools, plant species with bioenergy and biofuel potential, factors influencing biomass yield, advances in cultivation technologies, fermentation of different substrates for ethanol production, and microalgae biomass technologies. Readers will gain a thorough understanding of modern biofuel production. Plant-Based Genetic Tools for Biofuels Production is a suitable reference for students in biotechnology and bioinformatics programs as well as researchers interested in information about the basics of biofuel production.
Science

Plants and BioEnergy

Plants and BioEnergy

Author: Maureen C. McCann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461493297

Category: Science

Page: 289

View: 286

A country's vision for developing renewable and sustainable energy resources is typically propelled by three important drivers – security, cost, and environmental impact. The U.S. currently accounts for a quarter of the world’s total oil consumption, with domestic demands necessitating – at an ever growing cost – a net import of more than 50% of the oil used in this country. At the same time, Brazil, because of its forward thinking on energy strategy, is today energy independent. As emerging economies around the world increase their petroleum use by large margins and as large fractions of that new consumption are necessarily supplied from unstable parts of the world, the inevitable repercussions on petroleum-driven economies will continue to escalate. In addition, there is an unequivocal imperative to take immediate and aggressive measures to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by decreasing fossil fuel consumption and increasing our use of carbon-neutral or carbon-negative fuels as well as improving efficiency of fuel use. Economic growth and development worldwide depend increasingly on secure supplies of reliable, affordable, clean energy. Together with its counterpart societies, was convened the First Pan-American Congress on Plants and BioEnergy, which was held in June, 2008, in Mérida, Mexico. Sponsored by the American Society of Plant Biologists, this congress was designed to initiate Pan-American research collaborations in energy biosciences. At that congress, the organizational committee committed themselves to continue the meeting biennially, resulting in the 2nd Pan-American Congress on Plants and BioEnergy to be held with the endorsement of ASPB, July 6-10, 2010, in São Paulo, Brazil. Whereas the 1st congress covered a broad range of topics that bioenergy impacted, the second congress will focus more on the advances in plant biology: the genetic improvement of energy crop plants, their fit into regional environments, and the development of a sustainable energy agriculture.
Science

Compendium of Bioenergy Plants

Compendium of Bioenergy Plants

Author: Eric Lam

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781498743396

Category: Science

Page: 129

View: 472

This volume of the Bioenergy Plants compendium contains a collection of chapters that focus on the history, economics, and practical sciences related to sugarcane. As one of the key biofuel crops in the world that is under large-scale cultivation, sugarcane is attracting interests for its adoption and emulation worldwide. With a high ratio of energ