Specialist Periodical Reports provide systematic and detailed review coverage of progress in the major areas of chemical research. Written by experts in their specialist fields the series creates a unique service for the active research chemist, supplying regular critical in-depth accounts of progress in particular areas of chemistry. For over 90 years The Royal Society of Chemistry and its predecessor, the Chemical Society, have been publishing reports charting developments in chemistry, which originally took the form of Annual Reports. However, by 1967 the whole spectrum of chemistry could no longer be contained within one volume and the series Specialist Periodical Reports was born. The Annual Reports themselves still existed but were divided into two, and subsequently three, volumes covering Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry. For more general coverage of the highlights in chemistry they remain a 'must'. Since that time the SPR series has altered according to the fluctuating degree of activity in various fields of chemistry. Some titles have remained unchanged, while others have altered their emphasis along with their titles; some have been combined under a new name whereas others have had to be discontinued. The current list of Specialist Periodical Reports can be seen on the inside flap of this volume.
One of the most important quantities characterizing a liquid metal is the static structure factor, S(k), i.e., the Fourier transforms of the pair correlation function g(r). A detailed knowledge of this quantity is essential for a quantitative understanding not only of the structure of fluid but also of numerous other properties of liquid metals and their alloys. There is an increasing need for understanding the various properties of metals, oxides and salts in the liquid state, because of their important role in metallurgical processes. The main problem in studying the properties of liquid metals is the non-availability of the exact interatomic potential. There are great uncertainties associated with the ab initio calculations of liquid metal interactions. Thus, although we can borrow the techniques of classical statistical mechanics, up to some extent, but unsure of the potential to which they are to be applied. The objective of this work is to determine the static structure factor for some liquid metals described in the long-wavelength limit and then its corresponding structure factor.
In a simple and accessible form, this book presents a unified approach to the physics of the liquid state, both in and out of equilibrium. It discerns, behind the seemingly anarchistic proliferation of phenomena observable in the liquid state, the sequence of causes and effects and, where appropriate, the underlying rules that preside over the general principles. The book begins by introducing the fundamental concepts of statistical mechanics, such as classical and quantum mechanics, probability theory, and the kinetic theory of gases, before moving on to discuss theoretical methods in order to contextualise the study of liquids. The last final section is devoted to ordering in complex fluids. It includes detailed technical notes and explicit calculations, and will appeal to graduate students in physics and chemistry. It will also be of interest the reader interested in statistical mechanics and their application to the physics of dense matter. This book will certainly become an indispensable reference for students and researchers who wish to become familiar with a multifaceted process looking towards new horizons.
This monograph, suitable for use as an advanced text, presents the statistical mechanics of solids from the perspective of the material properties of the solid state. The statistical mechanics are developed as a tool for understanding properties and each chapter includes useful exercises to illustrate the topics covered. Topics discussed include the theory of the harmonic crystal, the theory of free electrons in metal and semiconductors, electron transport, alloy ordering, surfaces and polymers.
This important book presents a unified formulation from first principles of the Hamiltonian and statistical mechanics of metallic and insulating crystals, amorphous solids, and liquids. Extensive comparison of theory and experiment provides an accurate understanding of the statistical properties of phonons, electrons, and phonon–phonon and electron–phonon interactions in elemental crystals and liquids. Questions are posed along the following lines: What is the “best” theory for a given property? How accurate is a good theory? What information is gained by a comparison of theory and experiment? How accurate is a good experiment? Contents:Condensed Matter HamiltonianStatistical MechanicsLattice DynamicsStatistical Mechanics of CrystalsLiquid Dynamics and Statistical MechanicsPhase Transitions and Nonequilibrium Processes Readership: Researchers, academics and graduate students in condensed matter physics. Keywords:Condensed Matter Hamiltonian;Statistical Mechanics;Lattice Dynamics;Crystals;Liquid Dynamics;Phase Transitions;Metastable StatesReviews:“This is a valuable and clearly written book in an important area of condensed matter theory. There is extensive contact between theoretical predictions and experiments. For both students and young research workers there are useful collections of problems which lead to further insight into the area covered. Quantitative equations of state are given prominence.”Norman H March Oxford University “This is an authoritative account of the physics and thermodynamics behind an understanding of the equation of state. It concentrates on elements and the use of pseudopotential perturbation theory for the simple metals provides insight and a basis for computer simulations. The account combines careful theoretical analyses, and Local-Density-Theory results, with interpretation of the best experimental data available and may be unique in incorporating the liquid, as well as the crystalline state. The very complete set of problems included would make it very appropriate as the text for a general course on the equation of state.”Walt Harrison Stanford University “Whatever the author does, he does it first class. His book is something we use to gauge excellence in the field, and I have no doubt that this one will be no exception. But this book is different from other books he wrote. It is more personal in that he has not hesitated to express his personal views strongly, but in a scholarly fashion.”Y Horie Los Alamos National Laboratory “This is a book of condensed matter physics that gives equal emphasis to solids and liquids. The author focuses on the equation of state of the simple elements and reviews the methods for passing from the Hamiltonian through statistical mechanics to the equation of state of the solid and liquid and the computation of the melting curve. For the reader who wants an introduction to the capability of modern statistical physics for accurate prediction of thermodynamic functions, this is the book.”David Young Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory “This book, in my mind, represents an extremely powerful resource to any researcher working in condensed matter physics and especially equation of state theory. It is clear from 'Statistical Physics of Crystals and Liquids' that Dr Wallace has a special gift of taking complex physics concepts and explaining them with the greatest of clarity. His ability clearly distinguishes this book from those written by more novice authors … In summary, I believe this book should be highly marketed as I expect that there is a large condensed matter community that would benefit from reading it.”Brad Clements Los Alamos National Laboratory “The three investigated subjects, only fragments of which are covered in other textbooks and research treatises, make this book a very useful one for specialists in statistical mechanics and structure of matter.”Zentralblatt MATH “… the book comprises a brisk overview of solids that reaches timely topics of nonequilibrium processes … its structure lends itself well to being used as an instructional text in either an advanced undergraduate course or a graduate treatment of the subject … The review of statistical mechanics is straightforward to anyone with prior exposure to the subject, and is nearly complete … Wallace has done an excellent job of achieving the goals set out in the introduction of the book in a format that is clean and easy to read with a notation that is not confusing.”MRS Bulletin “This book covers ‘equation of state’ but also atomic dynamics. In these fields it offers a useful summary of methods and results, which prove how successful modern computational methods have become.”Contemporary Physics
This book has its origins in the 1982 Spring College held at the Interna tional Centre for Theoretical Physics, Miramare, Trieste. The primary aim is to give a broad coverage of liquids and amorphous solids, at a level suitable for graduate students and research workers in condensed-matter physics, physical chemistry, and materials science. The book is intended for experimental workers with interests in the basic theory. While the topics covered are many, it was planned to place special emphasis on both static structure and dynamics, including electronic transport. This emphasis is evident from the rather complete coverage of the determination of static structure from both diffraction experiments and, for amorphous solids especially, from model building. The theory of the structure of liquids and liquid mixtures is then dealt with from the standpoint of, first, basic statistical mechanics and, subsequently, pair potentials constructed from the electron theory of simple metals and their alloys. The discussion of static structure is completed in two chapters with rather different emphases on liquid surfaces and interfaces. The first deals with the basic statistical mechanics of neutral and charged interfaces, while the second is concerned with solvation and double-layer effects. Dynamic structure is introduced by a comprehensive discussion of single-particle motion in liquids. This is followed by the structure and dynamics of charged fluids, where again much basic statistical mechanics is developed.
Liquid Metals covers topics about the properties of liquid metals, with emphasis on the microscopic description of the electron states. The book discusses radial distribution function, which is the quantitative way by which the structure of a monatomic fluid may be described, and the scattering of X-rays (or neutrons) from the fluid. The text describes the way by which the forces operating in liquid metals may be qualitatively described; the theory of electron screening in metals; the shielding of a structureless ion core in the Born approximation; and ways by which the structure of the ion core can profoundly influence the shielding. The forces operating between ions in liquid metals; the properties of solid metals; the time-dependent generalization of the structure factor; the dynamics of fluids from inelastic neutron scattering; and the nature of the energy level spectrum of the electrons in a liquid metal are also considered. Students of elementary quantum mechanics and statistical thermodynamics and physicists will find the book invaluable.
This book presents up-to-date information about the catalysis and surface properties of liquid metals and liquid alloys. It is intended for use by chemical engineers and researchers in catalysis, surface science, liquid metals, and chemical process technologies.
The purpose of this book is to discuss the properties of non-metallic elements, when dissolved as a minor impurity in liquid metals and alloys, in terms of statistical thermodynamics, quantum mechanics and the latest structural models. The behaviour of non-metallic elements in liquid metals is one of the most important problems in metallurgical and physical chemistry, since it plays a central role in the manufacture of metallic materials.