Social Science

The Vanishing Hectare

The Vanishing Hectare

Author: Katherine Verdery

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9781501717253

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 797

In most countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, the fall of communism opened up the possibility for individuals to acquire land. Based on Katherine Verdery's extensive fieldwork between 1990 and 2001, The Vanishing Hectare explores the importance of land and land ownership to the people of one Transylvanian community, Aurel Vlaicu. Verdery traces how collectivized land was transformed into private property, how land was valued, what the new owners were able to do with it, and what it signified to each of the different groups vying for land rights. Verdery tells this story about transforming socialist property forms in a global context, showing the fruitfulness of conceptualizing property as a political symbol, as a complex of social relations among people and things, and as a process of assigning value. This book is a window on rural life after socialism but it also provides a framework for assessing the neo-liberal economic policies that have prevailed elsewhere, such as in Latin America. Verdery shows how the trajectory of property after socialism was deeply conditioned by the forms property took in socialism itself; this is in contrast to the image of a "tabula rasa" that governed much thinking about post-socialist property reform.
History

The Vanishing Hectare

The Vanishing Hectare

Author: Katherine Verdery

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801488699

Category: History

Page: 452

View: 595

In most countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, the fall of communism meant individuals could acquire land. Based on fieldwork between 1990 and 2001, the author explores the importance of land and land ownership in one Transylvanian community.
Political Science

Taking Stock of Shock

Taking Stock of Shock

Author: Kristen Ghodsee

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780197549261

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 271

Kristen Ghodsee and Mitchell A. Orenstein blend empirical data with lived experiences to produce a robust picture of who won and who lost in post-communist transition, contextualizing the rise of populism in Eastern Europe. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, more than 400 million people suddenly found themselves in a new reality, a dramatic transition from state socialist and centrally planned workers' states to liberal democracy (in most cases) and free markets. Thirty years later, postsocialist citizens remain sharply divided on the legacies of transition. Was it a success that produced great progress after a short recession, or a socio-economic catastrophe foisted on the East by Western capitalists? Taking Stock of Shock aims to uncover the truth using a unique, interdisciplinary investigation into the social consequences of transitionincluding the rise of authoritarian populism and xenophobia. Showing that economic, demographic, sociological, political scientific, and ethnographic research produce contradictory results based on different disciplinary methods and data, Kristen Ghodsee and Mitchell Orenstein triangulate the results. They find that both the J-curve model, which anticipates sustained growth after a sharp downturn, and the "disaster capitalism" perspective, which posits that neoliberalism led to devastating outcomes, have significant basis in fact. While substantial percentages of the populations across a variety of postsocialist countries enjoyed remarkable success, prosperity, and progress, many others suffered an unprecedented socio-economic catastrophe. Ghodsee and Orenstein conclude that the promise of transition still remains elusive for many and offer policy ideas for overcoming negative social and political consequences.
History

Green Barons, Force-of-Circumstance Entrepreneurs, Impotent Mayors

Green Barons, Force-of-Circumstance Entrepreneurs, Impotent Mayors

Author: Nigel Swain

Publisher: Central European University Press

ISBN: 9786155225710

Category: History

Page: 412

View: 366

An exemplary study in comparative contemporary history, this monograph looks at rural change in six countries: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. In the 1990s most of these nations experienced a fourth radical restructuring of agricultural relations in the twentieth century, and all went through the dramatic transition from communism to capitalism. The author analyzes attempts to activate democracy on a local level and recreate farming structures and non-agricultural businesses based on private ownership and private enterprise. He describes the emergence of a new business class that seeks to dominate local government structures; the recuperation of former communist farming entities by former managers; and the transformation of peasants into rural citizens, who nevertheless remain the underdogs. Swain exposes common features as well as specific divergences between the six countries; he portrays the winners, losers and engineers of transformations. He situates his themes in a wider context that will appeal to a broad range of social scientists and historians.
Social Science

Recalling Fieldwork

Recalling Fieldwork

Author: Raluca Mateoc

Publisher: LIT Verlag M√ľnster

ISBN: 9783643802477

Category: Social Science

Page: 254

View: 268

The volume addresses reflections on the social conditions in which anthropological research in Eastern European countries under and after socialism was conducted. Methodological commonalities and differences for anthropologists coming from specific academic traditions and political contexts are revealed through fresh reflections on the everyday fieldwork. Institutional settings of the 70s and 80s, challenges in entering the field or engagement with the needs and desires of the studied subjects come out of this web of reflections. While some authors recall fieldwork based in single countries, others recall journeys though multi-sited ethnographies.
Political Science

Post-Soviet Power

Post-Soviet Power

Author: Susanne A. Wengle

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107072480

Category: Political Science

Page: 311

View: 476

Examines the transformation of the Russian electricity system during post-Soviet marketization, arguing for a view of economic and political development as mutually constitutive.
Political Science

State, Society and the Market in Contemporary Vietnam

State, Society and the Market in Contemporary Vietnam

Author: Hue-Tam Ho Tai

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136226458

Category: Political Science

Page: 252

View: 586

Lively debates around property, access to resources, legal rights, and the protection of livelihoods have unfolded in Vietnam since the economic reforms of 1986. Known as Doi Moi (changing to the new), these have gradually transformed the country from a socialist state to a society in which a communist party presides over a neoliberal economy. By exploring the complex relationship between property, the state, society, and the market, this book demonstrates how both developmental issues and state-society relations in Vietnam can be explored through the prism of property relations and property rights. The essays in this collection demonstrate how negotiations over property are deeply enmeshed with dynamics of state formation, and covers debates over the role of the state and its relationship to various levels of society, the intrusion of global forces into the lives of marginalized communities and individuals, and how community norms and standards shape and reshape national policy and laws. With contributors from around the world, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of East and Southeast Asian studies, including politics, culture, society, and law, as well as those interested in the role of the state and property relations more generally.
Law

Human Rights, State Sovereignty and Medical Ethics

Human Rights, State Sovereignty and Medical Ethics

Author: Claude Cahn

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9789004280342

Category: Law

Page: 317

View: 227

Human Rights, State Sovereignty and Medical Ethics: Examining Struggles Around Coercive Sterilisation of Romani Women examines efforts to seek justice for Romani women coercively sterilized in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Legal and social aspects are explored in the context of global developments in human rights law and individual autonomy.
History

Property in East Central Europe

Property in East Central Europe

Author: Hannes Siegrist

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781782384625

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 854

Property is a complex phenomenon comprising cultural, social, and legal rules. During the twentieth century, property rights in land suffered massive interference in Central and Eastern Europe. The promise of universal and formally equal rights of land ownership, ensuring predictability of social processes and individual autonomy, was largely not fulfilled. The national appropriation of property in the interwar period and the communist era represent an onerous legacy for the postcommunist (re)construction of a liberal-individualist property regime. However, as the scholars in this collection show, after the demise of communism in Eastern Europe property is again a major factor in shaping individual identity and in providing the political order and culture with a foundational institution. This volume analyzes both historical and contemporary forms of land ownership in Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia in a multidisciplinary framework including economic history, legal and political studies, and social anthropology.
History

World Order after Leninism

World Order after Leninism

Author: Vladimir Tismaneanu

Publisher: University of Washington Press

ISBN: 9780295802435

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 577

World Order after Leninism examines the origins and evolution of world communism and explores how its legacies have shaped the post-Cold War world order. The lessons of Leninism continue to exert a strong influence in contemporary foreign affairs--most visibly in Poland and other post-communist states of the former Soviet Union, but also in China and other newly industrialized states balancing authoritarian impulses against the pressures of globalization, free markets, and democratic possibilities. World Order after Leninism began as a conversation among former students of Ken Jowitt, professor of political science at the University of California at Berkeley from 1970-2002 and whose monumental career transformed the fields of political science, Russian studies, and post-communist studies. Using divergent case studies, the essays in this volume document the ways in which Jowitt's exceptionally original work on Leninism's evolution and consolidation remains highly relevant in analyzing contemporary post-communist and post-authoritarian political transformations.
Forest conservation

The Vanishing Forests?

The Vanishing Forests?

Author: Richard Jones

Publisher: Hobart : Environmental Law Reform Group, University of Tasmania

ISBN: STANFORD:36105044251663

Category: Forest conservation

Page: 99

View: 388

History

Central and East European Politics

Central and East European Politics

Author: Sharon L. Wolchik

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 0742540685

Category: History

Page: 410

View: 336

This long-needed text explores the other half of Europe, the new and future members of the EU along with the problems and potential they bring to the region and to the world stage. Clear and comprehensive, it offers an authoritative and up-to-date analysis of the transformations and realities in Central and Eastern Europe, the Baltics, and Ukraine. The book presents a set of comparative country case studies as well as thematic chapters on key issues, including European Union and NATO expansion, the economic transition and its social ramifications, the role of women, persistent problems of ethnicity and nationalism, and political reform. For students and specialists alike, this book will be an invaluable resource on the newly democratizing states of Europe.